Zumdahl 8th Edition

Table of Contents

1.1 Chemistry: An Overview


"Chemistry is the central science. It is the science about substances, their composition, structure, properties, and interactions. Chemistry helps explain the physical world.........."

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1.2 The Scientific Method

1.2 The Scientific Method



1.3 Units of Measurement
1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement
1.5 Significant Figures and Calculations
1.6 Dimensional Analysis (Unit Conversions)

1.6 Dimensional Analysis




1.7 Temperature
1.8 Density
1.9 Classification of Matter  
2.1 The Early History of Chemistry
Timeline of Chemistry
2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws
2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory
2.4 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction
2.6 Molecules and Ions
2.7 An Introduction to the Periodic Table
2.8 Naming Simple Compounds  
3.1 Counting by Weighing
3.2 Atomic Masses
3.3 The Mole
3.4 Molar Mass
3.5 Percent Composition of Compounds
3.6 Determining the Formula of a Compound
3.7 Chemical Equations
3.8 Balancing Chemical Equations
3.9 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
3.10 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant   
4.1 Water, the Common Solvent
4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes
4.3 The Composition of Solutions
4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions
4.5 Precipitation Reactions
4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution
4.7 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 
4.8 Acid-Base Reactions
4.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
4.10 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations  
5.1 Pressure    
5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro    
5.3 The Ideal Gas Law    
5.4 Gas Stoichiometry    
5.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures    
5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases    
5.7 Effusion and Diffusion    
5.8 Real Gases    
5.9 Chemistry in the Atmosphere    
5.10 Characteristics of Several Real Gases    

6.1 The Nature of Energy    
6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry    
6.3 Hess's Law    
6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation    
6.5 Present Sources of Energy    

6.6 New Energy Sources

7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation    
7.2 The Nature of Matter    
7.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen    
7.4 The Bohr Model    
7.5 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom    
7.6 Quantum Numbers    
7.7 Orbital Shapes and Energies    
7.8 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle    
7.9 Polyelectronic Atoms    
7.10 The History of the Periodic Table    
7.11 The Aufbau Principles and the Periodic Table    
7.12 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties    
7.13 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals    
8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds    
8.2 Electronegativity    
8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments    
8.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes    
8.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds    
8.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds    
8.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model    
8.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions    
8.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model    
8.10 Lewis Structures    
8.11 Exceptions to the Octet Rule    
8.12 Resonance    
8.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model    

9. Covalent Bonding: Orbitals    
9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model    
9.2 The Molecular Orbital Model    
9.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules    
9.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules    
9.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models    
10.1 Intermolecular Forces    
10.2 The Liquid State    
10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids    
10.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals    
10.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids    
10.6 Molecular Solids    
10.7 Ionic Solids    
10.8 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State    
10.9 Phase Diagrams    

11.1 Solution Composition    
11.2 The Energies of Solution Formation    
11.3 Factors Affecting Solubility    
11.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions    
11.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions    
11.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression    
11.6 Osmotic Pressure    
11.6 Osmotic Pressure    

11.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

11.8 Colloids    
12. Chemical Kinetics    
12.1 Reaction Rates    
12.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction    
12.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law    
12.4 The Integrated Rate Law    
12.5 Rate Laws: A Summary    
12.6 Reaction Mechanisms    
12.7 A Model for Chemical Kinetics    
12.8 Catalysis    
13.1 The Equilibrium Condition    
13.2 The Equilibrium Constant    
13.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures    
13.4 Heterogeneous Equilibria    
13.5 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant    
13.6 Solving Equilibrium Problems    
13.7 Le Chatelier's Principle    

14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases    
14.2 Acid Strength    
14.3 The pH Scale    
14.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions    
14.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions    
14.6 Bases    
14.7 Polyprotic Acids    
14.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts    
14.9 The Effect of Structure on Acid-Base Properties    
14.10 Acid-Base Properties of Oxides    
14.11 The Lewis Acid-Base Model    
14.12 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary    
15.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion    
15.2 Buffered Solutions    
15.3 Buffer Capacity    
15.4 Titrations and pH Curves    
15.5 Acid-Base Indicators    
15.6 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product    
15.7 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis Complex Ion Equilibria    
15.8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions    
16. Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy    
16.1 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy    
16.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics    
16.3 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity    
16.4 Free Energy    
16.5 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions    
16.6 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions    
16.7 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure    
16.8 Free Energy and Equilibrium    
16.9 Free Energy and Work    
17. Electrochemistry    
17.1 Galvanic Cells    
17.2 Standard Reduction Potential    
17.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy    
17.4 Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration    
17.5 Batteries    
17.6 Corrosion    
17.7 Electrolysis    
17.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes    
18. The Nucleus: A Chemist's View    
18.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay    
18.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay    
18.3 Nuclear Transformations    
18.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity    
18.5 Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus    
18.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion    
18.7 Effects of Radiation    
19. The Representative Elements: Groups 1A Through 4A    
19.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements    
19.2 The Group 1A Elements    
19.3 Hydrogen    
19.4 The Group 2A Elements    
19.5 The Group 3A Elements    
19.6 The Group 4A Elements    
20. The Representative Elements: Groups 5A Through 8A    
20.1 The Group 5A Elements    
20.2 The Chemistry of Nitrogen    
20.3 The Chemistry of Phosphorus    
20.4 The Group 6A Elements    
20.5 The Chemistry of Oxygen    
20.6 The Chemistry of Sulfur    
20.7 The Group 7A Elements    
20.8 The Group 8A Elements    
21. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry    
21.1 The Transition Metals: A Survey    
21.2 The First-Row Transition Metals    
21.3 Coordination Compounds    
21.4 Isomerism    
21.5 Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model    
21.6 The Crystal Field Model    
21.7 The Biologic Importance of Coordination Complexes    
21.8 Metallurgy and Iron and Steel Production    
22. Organic and Biological Molecules    
22.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons    
22.2 Alkenes and Alkynes    
22.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons    
22.4 Hydrocarbon Derivatives    
22.5 Polymers    
22.6 Natural Polymers